Azerbaijan or Republic of Azerbaijan is an important country of the Eurasian continent and it is the largest as well as the most populated region in South Caucasus. Whilst the capital, Baku, has rapidly transformed itself into a highly developed modern city, the surrounding villages still remain untouched and archaic.
Azerbaijan is divided partially between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. On its eastern side lies the Caspian Sea, whilst the Russian Federation borders it on the north.
Other countries which share boundaries with Azerbaijan are Georgia in the west and north-west, Armenia in the south-west and Iran in the south. The Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan is bordered by Armenia to its north and east, while Iran lies to its south and south-west, and Turkey to its west.
Azerbaijan if formed of 65 regions and 69 cities of which Baku is the capital. While Azerbaijani is the official language spoken, due to Russia’s rule for so many years, Russian and Turkish languages are widely spoken. In some regions, people also converse in English, German and Arabic.
Only in Azerbaijan
9 climatic zones
There are 13 climate zones in the world and Azerbaijan has 9 of them.
Old Inner City
Icheri Sheher or the Old Inner City is the oldest part of Baku that is surrounded by fortification walls dating to the 9th century. The streets inside the city have been designed to block the strong gust of air coming from the Caspian Sea.
The Maiden Tower is one of the most dominant architectural pieces, due to its vague design and the stories that surround it. Said to be built in the 12th century originally on the shore of Caspian Sea (later due to land reclamation, the tower is no more near the Caspian sea), it was supposed to serve as a watch tower. But the construction and architecture, points the needle to nearly 2,500 years back. It’s an important part of Azerbaijani history considering that it features on the country’s currency notes and other documents.
International Mugam Center
Mugam center is opened at the seaside National Park in Baku. The form of the building reminds of the tar parts that is one of the ancient musical instruments of Azerbaijan. Equipment necessary for the building constructed using the state-of-the art technology was brought from Italy, Austria, France and Turkey. It is the first Mugam Center in the wold.
The State Flag Square
It is a memorial monument- Relaxation Park situated in Baku, Bayil settlement. The grand opening of the Square was in September 1, 2010. The height of the supporting block erected in the square of 20000 m² is 162 meter diameter of the foundation - 3,2 meter the diameter of the top surface - 1,09 meter The width of the Flag is 35 meter length - 70 meter total area - 2450 square meter and the weight - 350 kg. In May 29, 2010 Guinness World Records confirmed the post of Azerbaijan State Flag to be the highest in the world.
This is the conservation where complex of archaeological monuments of Azerbaijan is reserved. The conservation is situated in Gobustan settlement of Garadag region, 56 km away from the capital Baku. There is also a museum functioning here. Gobustan is one of the first holy places of art culture of the world where the ancient dance and musical cultures are formed.
In comparison with magmatic volcanoes it is spread in the restricted areas. Mud volcanoes are accumulated in the territory of 16000 km². It seems as if that majestic manifestation of the nature , with unsolved secrecy, was purposely animated here with all the variety of its forms and types.That is why Azerbaijan is considered a homeland of mud volcanoes. The territories of Azerbaijan where the mud volcanoes are widespread are Absheron Peninsula, Shamakhi-Gobustan and the Lower Kuryan cavities, the Baku Archipelago and the territories bordering with Georgia.
Yanardag (Burning mountain)
It is considered one of the wonders of the world. Before the religion of Islam, Yanardag was a place of religious faith and a shrine for fire worshipers. There are a lot of legends and rumors about this monument.
Not far away from Yanardag, i.e. 200 meters south, there is a weak volcano erupting and scattering around water with slime. When bringing a lighter nearer to the mixture of the volcanic water and sulfurous trioxide that comes out from the earth one can see burst of a fire for a moment. The fire burning around the monument can reach the height of 10-15 meters. The glitter of the fire is clearly seen in winter. "Ardebyl Carpet" or "Sheikh Sefi Carpet"
It is a famous carpet of "Lechekturunj" composition woven in Tebriz (56,12 square meters, kept in Victoria and Albert Museum of London), the best pattern of ornamental carpets, the masterpiece of Tebriz school of carpet weaving. It was woven by the order of Sephevi Monarch Tahmasib I for Ardebil Mosque in 1539. The carpet was bought by the English and brought to London in 1893. It was considered the largest carpet of the world for a long time.
Temple of Fire
Ateshgah is called in place where a fire played with wind. According to historical sources, "Ateshgah" is one of the rare sacred sanctuaries of the world, which was built at place of natural gas, the eternal gas, in the XVII-XVIII centuries. Some of the earliest construction of the temple belongs to the year AD 1713. The temple-altar was built with funds of the Indian merchant Kanjanagara in 1810. "Ateshgah" was built by Hindu Sikhs, originally from the North India that came and settled here in Baku.
Ateshgah is located in a little distance from the sea, on the Apsheron Peninsula, at the south-eastern end of the village of Surakhany, near the oil fields.
Such temples of fire exist only in two places in the world - North India and here in Azerbaijan at the present time. Naphthalene oil
Naphthalene oil is one of the most valuable natural resources of Azerbaijan. This is the only oil in the world, besides having the legendary features of its medical importance, differs from other oils for the physical-chemical features. Sufficient number of resin in the composition and formation of solid emulsion with the water makes the naphthalene oil different from other oils. Naphthalene oil, which is the only oil in the world known for its medical purpose, is situated 50 km away from the Ganja city of Azerbaijan Republic at foothill of Murov mountains.
Naphthalene oil is famous in the world for exclusive means with healing properties of bone - joint, skin, gynecological diseases and urological diseases, nerves.
Sheki Khan Palace
The date of the construction of the palace, which is named at period of the Khanate as "Courthouse" (Divankhana) is considered to be 1760-1765 years in the scientific literature. Sheki Khan Palace, which is the only architect in the world with its originality, was designed by Haji Zeynalabdin from Shiraz. There is a special construction style. It is enough to show that during the construction of the palace not a single nail or adhesive was used. Khan Palace consists of 2 stories 6 rooms, 4 corridors, 2 mirrored balconies. Sheki Khan Palace, at the same time is one of the rare pearls of Azerbaijan Art and Applied Art. Painting samples of the palace kept its miracle and attractiveness up to this day. Its walls are decorated with pictures on different topics. Names of five artists, who decorated the palace at various times, are known.
Khynalyq and The people of Khynalyq
The people of Khynalyq is one of the ethnic nations of Azerbaijan. Among the ethnic minorities in Azerbaijan they are distinguished with unique ethnographic features. This ethnos belongs to the Caucasian language family, and for their location around Shahdag they are called in historical and ethnographic literature as "Shahdag peoples". The people of Khynalyq are considered to be the most ancient inhabitants of Azerbaijan. This ethnos has the only language and the settlement in the world. In other words, in the ethnic map of the world there is only one village of Khynalyq and its language, which belongs to the Guba region of Azerbaijan.